Did you add the card to the USB list as shown in lectures? If you did, then make sure that you don’t physically connect the card to the computer until Kali is fully booted, connect the card, then go to the devices menu (beside the file menu) >> USB >> Click your device.
If you’ve already done the above, then please try the following suggestions:
– Experiment with connecting the adapter before and after Kali fully loads, and after you log in as root.
– Experiment with setting the adapter to use USB 2 and USB 3 in VirtualBox’s USB settings.
– Make sure you connect the adapter directly to the computer, don’t use a hub or an extension.
– And experiment with connecting the adapter to different USB ports.
Let me know how it goes!