Can you tell me the exact model of your adapter?(brand and model)
Ypu can try:
– Experiment with connecting the adapter before and after Kali fully loads, and after you log in as root.
– Experiment with setting the adapter to use USB 2 and USB 3 in VirtualBox’s USB settings.
– Make sure you connect the adapter directly to the computer, don’t use a hub or an extension.
– And experiment with connecting the adapter to different USB ports.
Let me know how it goes!